Australian Comics and Graphic Novels: A Small but Growing Industry

This article was originally written for Magpies Magazine Vol 32, No. 5 (November 2017). Magpies is an Australian magazine for school and public libraries that deal primarily with children’s literature. The purpose of writing this article was to raise awareness for Australian comics in local libraries.

Comics and Graphic Novels have become a major part of the literary landscape in the past 10 years, with demand driving many libraries and schools to establish a graphic novel section. Much of the growth is being driven by Asian and North America publishers and creators, but what about Australian graphic novelists and comic creators?

Comic Con-versation: A Library Festival

When librarian Karen Dwarte decided to hold an evening comic convention at Ashfield library in 2014, she was surprised by the enthusiastic response. The positive feedback led her to establish the annual library festival Comic Con-versation, an event that has grown to include 20 Sydney libraries in 2017. ‘The graphic novel section has been the most popular section for a while now,’ says Karen. ‘The festival has also grown quickly, and I continue to get expressions of interest from other libraries, including from Melbourne and Brisbane.’

The festival is a week-long celebration of Australian comics, consisting of talks, panels, workshops, art markets, and comic labs (where creators draw comics in the library and invite patrons to participate). It makes a concerted effort to promote the work of local authors and artists, and attracts a number of children, teens and adults interested in comics—of which there are many.

‘The interest of teens in comics-related activities is especially heartening,’ says Karen. ‘Teens have traditionally been a difficult demographic for libraries to attract, and the trends show that inroads are being made.’

About Australian Graphic Novelists

For the longest time, the majority of comics sold in this country tended to be foreign. They were typically superhero comics from America, or more recently, manga from Japan. Despite this, Australia still manages to have a long history of independent work, and its best local cartoonists have always been as distinct and entertaining as their international counterparts. This country boasts a breadth of material, ranging from the vigilante action hero ‘The Phantom’ to comic strips like ‘Ginger Meggs’. It also includes the work of cultural commentators such as Michael Leunig.

This is a proud tradition that still holds, whether we’re talking about artists or writers working for American comic publishers like Image, Top Cow or IDW (their nationality rarely noted), or independent work printed for a local readership. Either way, Australian comic creators face the same problems as Australians in all areas of art: a small, fragmented market dominated by countries with more established industries and larger cultural footprints.

As such, self-publishing is the norm for a lot of local graphic novelists. This is hardly new for comics as a medium—for decades, underground comic book creators of more esoteric, experimental fare such as Robert Crumb and Art Spiegelman have self-published. The work of these men has been ‘rediscovered’ and lauded as art in the 21st Century, but the growth in popularity of comic book movies in the new millennia has seen a surge in public awareness. This has led to an influx of young people as well as more diverse voices, including women, people of colour, and LGBT creators.

According to a 2015 survey (Part 2, Part3) conducted by Julie Ditrich of Comics Mastermind, the average Australian comic creator is a white male (80%), who creates work for both genders aged 16+ (55%), and practices his chosen vocation as a hobby that earns less than $5000 a year (74%).

Interestingly, while 37% of respondents claim to work in ‘all ages’ comics, only 3% and 5% produce work for the 5-12 and 13-16 age ranges respectively. From this, it would appear that the old adage of children’s fiction lacking prestige holds true in comics too, though the survey also notes that 58% of respondents have seen an increase in their comics income in the past five years. This figure seems to indicate a growing market and appetite for locally-produced work, which is promising.

Marketplaces for Australian Comics

As mentioned, the popularity of superhero movies has raised the cachet of comics to the general public. Nowhere can that be more keenly felt than at pop-culture extravaganza events like Supanova, Oz Comic-Con and SMASH!.

Comic conventions may have originally been an American phenomenon—where fans of a particular subculture gather to celebrate their interests—but since the birth of the Internet, fan hysteria over a hit TV series can now travel across the world at warp speed. Men and women of all ages now gather on Twitter to dissect the latest movies, Snapchat pictures of cosplay competitions and dance-offs, and descend upon Artist’s Alley at comic cons to buy merchandise and fanart.

It is from these Artist’s Alleys where many Australian comic creators display and sell their work to the public. Whether they’re large scale conventions or smaller events focussed on small press publishers (such as MCA Zine fair, Otherworlds Zine fair, ComicStreet, Indie Comic Con, Impact Comics Festival, ZICS, ACAF and many more), each attracts a specific type of audience with particular interests. Other events such as ComicGong, Goulburn Comic-Con, Manly Zine Fair, NexusCon, and Comic-Conversation occupy a similar space, though these tend to be community events run by local libraries and councils rather than small press creators.

Alternative venues for sales are also growing. Writers festivals, such as this year’s Bendigo Writers Festival, are beginning to take an interest in comic creators for workshops and talks. Likewise, art galleries are also taking an interest in comic art – Liverpool City Library has held yearly comic exhibitions starring local creators, while Artshine Gallery in Sydney is hosting an annual exhibition by members of the Sydney Comics Guild. Sales figures from these events can vary wildly depending on the creator, though it points to a burgeoning culture that occupy real-world as well as virtual spaces. As with books, selling comics through the internet is common these days, with websites such as the Amazon-owned Comixology allowing self-published comics alongside professionally-published ones.

Australian creators have a global reach with these services, as they do with social media platforms where colourful illustrations remain highly popular. However, despite the ubiquity of such e-services, e-sales of comic book sales are believed to be only 10% of total comic sales, compared to 25% for e-books. This suggests either a readership with a preference for the physical edition, or just as likely, rampant internet piracy.

If hard copies of comics are preferred, then what about more traditional venues of book sales? Are there viable retail locations for Australian creators to ply their work outside the online or convention circuit?

The Comic Book Store

The idea that traditional bookstores have been struggling in the new millennium isn’t news. On the other hand, more niche outlets such as comic bookstores have been thriving.

In the past ten years, comic book stores have expanded the range of products they offer, from comic book ‘floppies’ of the latest X-men, to fully bound, beautifully-printed hardcover graphic novels. Rows of merchandise, models and T-shirts of every popular franchise ranging from ‘Star Wars’ to ‘Doctor Who’ are prominently displayed, along with multiple tie-ins of their comics and adaptations. However, the subject of our interest is their section for Australian comics—which may or may not have its own dedicated shelf in such spaces devoted to pop culture.

When there are more comic bookstores now than there were two decades ago, it was customary in the 1980s for a local store to have a shelf dedicated to Australian work. Nowadays, a cursory examination of different comic bookstores can tell varying stories about their relationship to locally-produced comics. Since comic bookstores operate like independent bookstores (despite having drastically methods of ordering, inventory management and customer relations), it can be said that each bookstore’s attitude to Australian comics is dependent on that of the staff.

‘Some of our local titles have outsold comics like Batman or Spiderman; we believe the connection between these stories and our customers is strong because they’re more relevant,’ says Mark Selan of Greenlight Comics in Adelaide, who devotes a section of their store to locally-produced work. ‘Dan McGuiness and I used to be in small press, so helping out as retailers seems right. We support the local community because they’re engaged and vibrant, with great potential.’

However, local creators can do more work on marketing. ‘In my experience, the creators who have business skills are the ones who sell the best,’ says Stephen Ford, a former employee of Kings Comics in Sydney. ‘I championed Australian comics at Kings Comics, but there is a limit to how much I can do. When a creative team puts money and effort into promoting their work, they can do very well.’

This isn’t a problem unique to comics. As the publishing industry fragments due to new technologies such as e-books and print-on-demand, all entrepreneur-artists can do with better self-promotion. However, few artistic types have the skillset to handle both the creative and the business side of their work, which is why publishers exist in the first place—to serve those needs. With the boom in graphic novels, you might think that publishers, with their wide-reaching distribution networks, would take a bigger interest in comics.

Unfortunately, Australian publishers are not known for publishing a lot of graphic novels. However, the reason may not be what most people think.

Australian Publishers and Comics

The best-known graphic novel published by an Australian publisher is probably ‘The Arrival’ by Shaun Tan, a stunningly illustrated, wordless comic centred around themes of immigration and displacement. It was published in 2008 by Lothian Books in Melbourne, an imprint of Hachette Australia. It won multiple awards, and after that, it ended up in the children’s picture book section of most bookstores, where it still occasionally resides today. This placement may have limited its audience and reach, especially when the intended audience isn’t necessarily children, but there were good reasons for that. A decade ago, graphic novel sections didn’t exist in a typical Dymocks—only in Borders, and certain independent bookstores. Certainly, things should have changed a decade later?

Fast forward to 2017, where ‘Small Things’ (published by Allen & Unwin) wins the Gold Ledger Award, the Australian industry awards for excellence in comics. ‘Small Things’ is a heart-breaking and sumptuously illustrated, wordless comic about childhood depression, and after winning multiple awards, it…ended up in the children’s picture book section. This is despite it being clearly a graphic novel and not a picture book. Some people might chalk its placement up to ignorance, but that isn’t entirely accurate.

‘I’ve been told by an Australian publisher that if I wanted to submit a comic, it’s best to pitch it as a picture book for children,’ said Doug Holgate, a Melbourne children’s book illustrator and co-creator of ‘Clem Hetherington and The Ironwood Race’ (due 2018 from Scholastic Graphix). In other words, Australian publishers do know the difference between a picture book and a graphic novel, but they deliberately mislabel graphic novels as picture books.

A burning question arises: Why?

The easiest explanation is that the average Australian bookstore, be it a Dymocks or a smaller chain, still doesn’t have much of a graphic novel section in 2017. For that reason, an Australian publisher trying to push a graphic novel may run into difficulty with book buyers who simply won’t stock a comic for lack of a proper section in their stores. Conversely, picture books will always be stocked, since picture books are a known category that will still make money despite the failure or success of an individual book.

It may sound lazy, but both bookstores and publishing houses are businesses. Where a book is stocked in a bookstore can determine its sales trajectory, and as such, mislabelling the category of a book is probably just a business decision, nothing more.

The Traditional Book Store

This strange situation isn’t helped by lack of reliable data. Bookscan data from the US shows Graphic Novels to be the only category to grow year after year for the past decade, but since graphic novel sales in Australia are mostly sold online or in specialty stores, exact figures are difficult to collect.

It doesn’t help that a sizeable portion of comics—22-page ‘floppies’ that many American publishers still publish in—lack ISBNs. These are considered periodicals, not books, and so these comic sales can’t be tracked using the same systems that track books. Not all buyers of ‘floppies’ go on to buy collected trade editions of the same story, but these sales can’t be easily ignored either.

‘Floppies’ aside, however, some traditional bookstores do quite well with graphic novels alone.

‘The Manga and Graphic Novel section of the bookstore has been the best-selling section for years,’ says Chew Chan, the Comics consultant for the Japanese chain bookstore Kinokuniya in Sydney. A hangout for all things hip, the bookstore has had a well-stocked graphic novel section since its opening in 1996.

The only chain bookstore that stocked comics in this country was Borders, and after it went bankrupt in 2011, it has only helped bookstores like Kinokuniya. As an industry, however, bookstores are embattled. Fads such as the colouring book craze aside, there has been no monster-selling book in the past few years to pull bookstores out of their retail slide. Even without the looming spectre of Amazon entering the Australian market, rising rents and runaway overheads have caused the bookstore market to contract.

This long-term, pessimistic outlook means that the motivation for the Dymocks chain to create a graphic novel section just isn’t there. New book sections require breadth of selection, shelf space, and knowledgeable employees, and the monetary returns are too uncertain for them to bother. Besides, it’s also too late—by now, most Australian consumers of graphic novels have already have been trained to either go online or to specialty stores to get their fix.

This situation definitely doesn’t help Australian publishers sneak comics into bookstores, but it would be wrong to say that comics hasn’t already been successful in Australian bookstores. Mislabelling comics as something else is already a very profitable business—and I don’t mean putting popular cartoon strips like ‘Dilbert’ into the humour section either.

Wimpy Kids and their Clones

Spend ten minutes in the middle grade section of a typical bookstore, and you will realise that the ‘Diary of a Wimpy Kid’ series by Jeff Kinney is extremely popular. It has spawned legions of clones, including some wildly successful Australian ones, like ‘The 13-Storey Treehouse’ series by Andy Griffiths (illustrated by Terry Denton), and the ‘Weirdo’ series by Anh Do (illustrated by Jules Faber).

These books are international million-copy sellers with their mix of humorous prose and cartoony doodles, and while most people don’t consider them comics in the traditional sense, you cannot discount the fact that their success rests partly on their illustrations. Which is where the crux of the argument lies, even though pictures in children’s books are as old as the category itself.

Only a generation ago, illustrators such as Quentin Blake would have been labelled ‘children’s book illustrators’ with nary a raise of the eyebrow. This new crop of illustrators, however, prefer to self-identify as ‘cartoonists’ or ‘comic book artists’. Jeff Kinney has clearly said that he wanted to draw comics, but lacked the technical skills, and so ended up creating ‘Diary of a Wimpy Kid’ instead, a book that was originally intended for an adult audience. No matter the aesthetic, the way that these artists see themselves has undergone a subtle but important shift.

If the artists who work on these books see themselves as ‘comic book artists’ rather than ‘children’s illustrators’, then shouldn’t these books be considered comics?

A Peculiar Legacy

That’s a question with no clear answer.

A few decades ago, promoters of the comics medium like Scott McCloud (‘Understanding Comics’) may have been thrilled to see comics treated as commonplace in bookstores, rather than being segregated into a separate, dimly-lit corner.

However, what McCloud envisioned was a cultural shift that treated comics like ‘Maus’ or ’The Sandman’ as serious adult literature, not full-spectrum dominance in the ages 9-12 section. The roaring success of children’s comics in 2017 is great news, but not necessarily something the average comic book creator celebrates with unbridled glee.

Still, we continue to push forward, finding new audiences and converts every day like any growing subculture would. This new interest in graphic novels from libraries is a frontier that was unthinkable only a decade ago, and so a concerted effort took place this year to get more Australian comics listed with library suppliers such as James Bennett and the ALS.

‘Getting Australian graphic novels with library suppliers have made it a lot easier for libraries to support Australian creators,’ says Karen. ‘Suppliers have also become more aware of the category. When I first started Comic Con-versation, it was very difficult to buy Australian comics for the library because of the paperwork involved. Now, I can order it with my supplier and have it already catalogued when it’s sent to us.’

Comic Con-versation Comics List

2017 saw the first effort to create a graphic novel purchasing list for the libraries participating in Comic Con-versation. Below is a list of Australian graphic novels for both children and adults that are available to order from library suppliers. Click here to download it as a PDF.



Fantasy World Building: Creating Backgrounds for your Story

This is a workshop I gave for the Sydney Comics Guild in February 2017, and I finally am putting it online. Before I go into the meaty bits, I have to clarify what this workshop covers and doesn’t cover:

  • This post is not intended to teach you how to draw backgrounds. The basics of background drawing are widely available online, and mastering it simply requires practice.
  • Instead, it aims to teach you some basic ideas of how to create architectural structures or clothing that are distinct from one another. In other worlds, world-building basics is one of its goals.

What is World-Building?

World-building is the process of constructing a reasonably believable fictional place or universe. This most commonly happens in the fantasy and sci-fi genres, but the truth is, creating a reasonably believable time and place is necessary for any kind of fiction.

The goal here is not to draw something generic-looking, but something specific-looking. Drawing generic-looking backgrounds is a basic skill in comics, but drawing something specific-looking requires vision and a unique visual style that could be attributed, at a glance, to a particular writer/artist or a particular story.

Case in point, my work for “The Dreaming” series:

The Dreaming” is a 3-book series I did in 2004-2007. It’s a horror story set in our world, and located entirely within a Victorian-era inspired school, with lots of dark wood panels, cluttered wallpaper, etc. As such, It’s a specific location created for this story, and I haven’t created a location that looks like this in any of my works since.

Readers remember this series mostly for how the school looks, and this is what you want to aim for when you create the visual design of a world. In this case, it’s not to draw a generic school, but a specific one that becomes a character within the story as well.

A second example is my other series “Fabled Kingdom” (see picture below). As you can see, this looks very different to “The Dreaming”, not just in what is being depicted, but also in the toning style of the series. “Fabled Kingdom” is a fairytale adventure world VS the gothic ghost story undertones of “The Dreaming“, and thus uses tones that are a lot less dark, and a more whimsical architecture style with less straight lines.

Tips for Creating Fantasy Castles/Cities

Here are some more scenes from “Fabled Kingdom”. When creating a fantasy location like a castle or a city, it’s a good idea to consider things like landscapes and mountains. That’s because to sustain life, you must have water, and also if you have plumbing, the slope of the land matters.

This seems like a minor issue that few people consider, but unlike the outlandishly fantastical lands depicted in fantasy/sci-fi posters or book covers, a comic book artist must create spaces that are 3-dimensional and lived in. This is because you have to visually depict your characters moving in and interacting with that space at all times, so it’s best to always think of space in a 3-dimensional way when creating any buildings. It may be difficult to do at first, but it will become easier as you change the way you think. For this same reason, the layout of the building also has to make sense.

To expand the scope a bit more, when creating the a castle or city, it’s a good idea to consider the skyline. Skylines that are striking can help differentiate different cities/castles from one another – for example, the skyline of Castle Roserock (see above) is one rectangle with five spires, with the middle one being the highest. You can integrate the history of the world and building into the skyline and floorplan of your buildings, which can be inspiring for writer-artists.

Tips for Fantasy Civilisations

Creating distinctive and different-looking fantasy civilisations is always hard, since it’s common for creators to just stick to one style of architecture and only modify it slightly. This is lazy, but if it’s not well-thought out before one start creating, it’s easy to paint yourself into a corner because you’ve exhausted all your ideas for just the one civilisation and now can’t find the inspiration to do another, constrasting civilisation. One way to avoid this is to plan ahead, and conceive of each civilisation as collection of polygonal shapes. You can also use real life or history for inspiration.

You can see this in the examples above: Summerstone is inspired by Ancient Eygpt, and so uses a lot of trapeziums, triangles, and circles. Meanwhile, Fallinor (the western-style fantasy castle) uses mostly rectangles, triangles, and ovals. Motifs are also important, and a good way to differentiate between different civilisations. For example, being sun worshippers, there are sun motifs everywhere in Summerstone, including on the clothing of its people, whereas Fallinor has more flower/tree motifs.

One Piece: Using Shapes to World-Build

The popular manga “One Piece” is an example of utilising the “shapes” idea in its skylines. You can see here, that while the composition is similar in each of the two sets of skylines, the shapes used makes each location immediately and recognisably different. Once you’ve nailed the shapes, the small details can be fine-tuned to enhance differences.

I should also note that “One Piece” uses a lot of real-life civilisations for inspiration as well, which is a great help, and good fun for the readers. Even when they don’t use real-life inspiration, the shapes used in all the background designs are distinct, and therefore strong and memorable. “One Piece’s” unique art style makes everything look even more distinctive.

Final Things to Consider in World Building

  • Terrain: is your country mountainous or mostly flat? Inland or by the sea? Swamps, marshes, deserts, rolling hills, forests, jungles, plains, rivers, valleys, lakes, and natural resources such as animals and minerals. All these things are important.
  • What is the climate like? This affects your characters’ clothing style, and it also affects architecture. If your place has heavy snow or rain in Winter, then no one will ever build anything with a flat roof. If a place is very hot and has high humidity, the houses won’t be fully enclosed as to ensure the circulation of fresh air. If a place is prone to floods, then houses may be built on stilts. Tornados? Underground or in the rockface, etc
  • If you build a city, it has to be close to a water source. However, not everything needs to have rivers and lakes – there are plenty of places that have underground water. People can build irrigation channels from underground water sources.
  • Mythology, History and Religion can be a big influence on motifs and how a civilisation looks. Where do your people come from? Where do they think they come from? What is their history? Were they originally farmers, nomads, or did they sail to where they are now? Have they been enslaved before by a greater power? Are they themselves conquerors and slavers? Have any great cataclysms happened to them in the past that influenced them? And so on.

Thanks for reading this! Also, have fun! Study the history, politics, mythologies, religion, philosophies, biology, medicine and economics, etc of our world in order to come up with something believable!

Hatshepsut – Footnotes and Bibliography

Here are the footnotes and bibliography that should accompany the 30-page Hatshepsut zine I created. Feel free to email me if there are corrections required. Some of the books also have multiple editions, so if you have a different edition, the page numbers may not be correct for you.


(Laukens, 2015) The word ‘Pharaoh’ means ‘great house’, and there is no Egyptian word for ‘queen’. Egyptians only had the word ‘Pharaoh’ for king, and all high-status royal women are titled as ‘Pharaoh’s Great Wife’, ‘Pharaoh’s Sister’, ‘Pharaoh’s Daughter’ or ‘Pharaoh’s Mother’.

2  (Roehrig, 2006) PP. 11. 18th Century Royal women seemed to have been very powerful. Founding Pharaoh Ahmose I had a militarily and politically active mother and grandmother—he honoured both his grandmother Tetisheri on a cenotaph at Abydos, and his mother Ahhotep I on a stela recovered from Karnak.

3  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 57-60. ‘God’s Wife of Amun’ is not a hereditary title passed from mother to daughter. Instead, it was a political and religius office tied directly to the Pharaoh and his Great Wife or mother. It seemed to have been established in the reign of 18th Century founder Ahmose I for his Great Wife Ahmose Nefertari.

4  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 30-33. The Cult of Amun was a powerful religious institution, with temple lands that, in the latter 18th Dynasty, rivalled the Pharaoh’s own holdings. The position of ‘God’s Wife’ reached its greatest power in Hatshepsut’s time, and she was a great patron to the entire priesthood class. The position of ‘God’s wife’ was greatly diminished by Thutmose III for much of the 18th Dynasty, but was revived during the Third Intermediate Period with reduced status.

5  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 51-52. His brothers Amenmose and Wadjmose were named as heirs in reliefs commissioned by Thutmose I. It is unknown who their mother was, but it is likely that they died since their names vanished from the inscriptions after a certain time. It is generally believed that their mother is Mutnofret, also the mother of Thutmose II.

6  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 62. There was a rebellion in Nubia at the start of Thutmose II’s reign, which was brutally crushed. There were probably other campaigns in Syria and in Sinai during this time. It was also customary for the Egyptians to abduct the young sons of nobles from their defeated states as hostages, so they can be schooled in the ways of their conquerors and become obedient rulers of their vassal states. Daughters were married into the Pharaoh’s harems, and treated gently as a sign of goodwill.

7  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 23-23. Ahmes and Mutnofret had the titles ‘Pharaoh’s Sister’ and ‘Pharaoh’s Mother’, meaning that both were possibly the daughter and sister of the previous two pharaohs before Thutmose I. Mutnofret had the additional title ‘Pharaoh’s Daughter’, which may mean that she is a royal princess. However, Ahmes does not – which may mean that Mutnofret had the stronger bloodline. According to (Roehrig, 2006) PP. 11 though, it’s common in the 18th Century for a princess to drop the title of ‘King’s Daughter’ if they married a commoner. So, it’s possible that Ahmes was a King’s Daughter who married Thutmose I, and when he became Pharaoh, ended up taking the title ‘King’s Sister’ instead. For the Pharaoh himself, having wives who were not of royal blood wasn’t uncommon in the 18th Dynasty. Having highborn and well-connected wives may seem like a good way to drum up support, but in reality, it may also create succession struggles and clan disputes. Many women in the harem were pretty ‘ornaments’, meaning that they were possibly from the royal court, but not of royal blood themselves.

8  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 30-31. By the 18th Dynasty, the god Amun had become the principle god in the Egyptian pantheon. Amun is the creator of the universe, and when joined with Re as Amun-Re, he was seen as the ultimate source of the sun’s life-giving powers.

9  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 27-28. Conceiving a child is considered the responsibility of the Pharaoh—women were not blamed if the pharaoh fails to produce children, or for producing children of the ‘wrong’ sex. In ancient Egypt, men are considered the progenitor of the life force that creates the universe, while women are considered receptacles, or fertile soil for his seed. For that reason, women are considered unable to renew themselves in the cycle of life necessary for universal balance to be maintained, which is why the Pharaoh must always be a man in Egyptian theology.

10  (Hill, 2010) Website. Bes was the wildly popular Egyptian dwarf god of war, but he was also the patron of childbirth and the home. He was associated with sexuality, humour, dancing and music, and his cult was popular with all segments of Egyptian society. A statue of him was often placed near the heads of women in labour, as it’s believed his dancing, shouting, and shaking of his rattle will keep evil spirits away. Bes is often said to stay with children after there are born—when a baby smiles, it’s assumed that Bes is making funny faces and entertaining the child. He is often associated with Taweret in the New Kingdom, who is a fierce protection goddess of childbirth who is linked with the lion, crocodile but especially the hippo.

11  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 32-33. The Egyptian royals probably had palaces up and down the Nile river. Thebes was the religious capital, and so at times, the Pharaoh will go to the ceremonial palace at the Entrance of Karnak on the east bank and attend to the priests in its audience hall. Where the royal family actually lived is unknown—it’s possible it was along the West Bank of Thebes, some distance away from the city of Thebes itself, which meant it was quieter and with more wildlife. Most Egyptian houses, including palaces, were made from unbaked mud bricks, so much of it didn’t survive apart from the stone elements such as columns, balustrades, door thresholds and sometimes toilets. The audience hall and throne room would have been the centrepiece of the palace.

12  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 82-83. 97. The exact length of this time period is unknown. Most people think Thutmose II died after only 3 years, but it’s assumed that even if Thutmose II managed to rule for 13 years, Hatshepsut (and Ahmes, if she was still alive) had a large role to play in the governing of Egypt. Part of the reason is that the foreign and domestic policies followed in the reign of Thutmose II is very similar to those during Hatshepsut’s reign. She was already depicted, alone and together with her husband, in several relief scenes from a gateway at Karnak dating back to Thutmose II’s reign. In them, she is shown as Pharaoh’s Great Wife and not as Pharaoh, performing rituals before the god Amun, while the Pharaoh isn’t present. This is an example of her influence years before she became Pharaoh.

13 (Cooney, 2014) PP. 68-69. It is believed that Hatshepsut had other daughters besides Nefrure, but Nefrure may have been the only one to survive to adulthood. Child mortality rates were very high in ancient Egypt, and children often died of any number of illnesses and diseases before they came of age.

14  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 40-41. The heir to the Pharaoh is often referred to as the ‘Golden Horus’, due to the Pharaoh’s links to Osiris, the Egyptian god of the underworld. His association with death and rebirth means that the Pharaoh himself is also representative of this cyclical life force, and as such, the myth of Horus and his quest to reunite the dismembered body of his father Osiris (murdered by his uncle Seth) is directly related to the chosen heir’s ascension to the throne as the next Pharaoh.

15  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 30-31. Egyptian harems are not quite like that of other countries such as the Turkish Seraglio or the Chinese Rear Palace. The Pharaoh’s Great Wife has their own palace and estates managed by male administrators, but it’s believed that all the other women lived in the harem palace, which is separate to the Pharaoh’s palace and with its own estate and income from tenant farmers. It seemed to be run as a self-sustaining community which also housed the nursery and the ‘Household of the Royal Children’, the most prestigious school in Egypt where princes are educated. This meant that the harem wasn’t so much a Pharaoh’s playground, but rather a dormitory which housed all female (and child) dependents of the Pharaoh, not just his wives. The harem was overseen by officials with titles like ‘Overseer of the Royal Harem’ or ‘Inspector of the Harem-Administration’, but there is no proof of there ever being eunuchs in the harem, nor is there indication that there were women held there against their will. It also seems that the lesser harem women were expected to earn their keep by doing chores like cooking, cleaning, nursing and most likely weaving.

16  (Cooney, 2014) PP.53. When a mummy believed to be that of Thutmose II was found in the 19th Century, his skin was covered in lesions and scars. That does not necessarily indicate a disease—several mummies in the same batch also had the same scarring, which meant that it might have been caused by carelessness during mummification. Examination revealed an enlarged heart, which meant that the man suffered from arrhythmias and shortness of breath, which probably led to a lack of athleticism and a poor constitution. However, it cannot be definitively proven that this is the mummy of Thutmose II.

17  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 15-16. Thutmose I had no direct line to the previous pharaoh Amenhotep I, who ruled for 20 years and never sired a son. It was assumed he came to the throne young, since his mother Ahmes-Nefertari ruled on his behalf for a time. Either way, Thutmose I was a senior military leader whose connection to the existing royal family is unknown, though It’s safe to assume he had royal blood. However, he never billed himself as a ‘King’s son’ (his father is unknown), and his mother was only described as ‘King’s mother’. This could indicate that his mother came from a commoner background.

18  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 106-107. A barque is a ceremonial platform, the ‘ship’ of a god by which a god’s statue is carried. When gods leave their temples, which are considered their homes, they often travel on such a barque that will be carried by the priests of the god. In Ancient Egypt, statues aren’t just considered a thing of beauty; they are considered the embodiment of a person’s or a god’s spirit, and of religious significance. The statue of Amun was probably solid gold, and shrouded from the eyes of everyone except the most senior of the god’s priests.

19  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 75-77. Thutmose III would later record this oracle in his annals, and make the same claims as Hatshepsut did. In his eyes, he was chosen and divine, and whether he truly believed it or not is irrelevant as this is how Egyptian kings portrayed their kingship.

20  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 77. Isis (or Iset) was the name of Thutmose III’s mother, and it’s safe to say that while she was probably from a respectable family, there is no indication that she has royal blood. Her images are few, and there is only one reference to her being a ‘King’s Mother’, which was made by Thutmose III. This lack of other titles indicate that she probably had no political connections.

21  (Dodson, 2015) PP. 1-10. Ancient Egypt is traditionally divided into two lands, and Pharaohs themselves are referred to as the ‘King of the Two Lands’. These two separate kingdoms were originally united in 3000BC, but each maintained its own regalia: the hedjet or White Crown for Upper (Southern) Egypt and the deshret or Red Crown for Lower (Northern) Egypt.

22 (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 116-119. Hapuseneb was possibly a distant relative of Hatshepsut, since he emphasised his childhood connection to the royal court. He was probably appointed by Hatshepsut’s mother Ahmes while she was still regent, and as such, was already a supporter of Hatshepsut when she came to be regent. As the high priest of Amun, he commanded a high amount of influence, and he was well-rewarded for his loyalty. So much that in his tomb, he didn’t even have any references to Thutmose III, only Hatshepsut.

23 (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 116-119. Ineni was already the royal architect and Overseer of Royal Buildings during the reign of Amenhotep I. He did a lot of work under these pharaohs, and though Senenmut would eventually gain a number of building commissions during Hatshepsut’s reign, Ineni continued to oversee some of her other buildings and was probably consulted on a lot of them. It seemed that Ineni was favoured by Hatshepsut, since the steles on the walls of his tomb talked about how she praised him and granted him riches.

24  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 91-92. Ahmose Pennekhbet was from a distinguished Theban aristocratic family, and already served the Thutmosic family in some form when Hatshepsut came to power. Oddly enough, his duties seem to overlap some with Hatshepsut’s overwhelming favourite Senenmut. Like Senenmut, Ahmose Pennekhbet was Nefrure’s tutor, and like Senenmut, had extensive control of the state’s finances. In addition, he monitored all the state’s taxes and expenses, opened the House of Gold with the vizier each morning, and was also responsible for all the state’s wealth outside its treasuries, including commodities such as grain, other food stores, stone, metal and linen.

25  (Carney, 2001) It has been long believed that Hatshepsut, as a woman, undertook no military campaigns where she led an army. However, there a few inscriptions from Deir El-Bahri that suggests she travelled with her army to the south to suppress a Nubian insurrection. There is also an unofficial graffito recovered from the Upper Egyptian island of Sehel (modern day Aswan), that was written on behalf of a bureaucrat called Ty who also served under Thutmose III. Sehel was like an ancient bulletin board—it was where people had announcements inscribed, and there are hundreds of unofficial announcements there. Ty claims to have seen Hatshepsut overthrowing Nubian nomads, and inscriptions from Senenmut’s tomb as well as the stela of a man called Djehuty seemed to suggest that Hatshepsut accompanied her army south to fight. So, while Hatshepsut may have led armies, it’s highly unlikely that she herself was a warrior though—as a princess, she would never have been trained in the warrior arts when she was a child.

26  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 80-81. It’s common for Egyptian royals in the 18th Dynasty to have nurses, some of whom are actually male tutors, while others were wet nurses. As such, many of them were named in reliefs and inscriptions. Hatshepsut herself had a wet nurse called Sitre who she seemed close to, and who was rewarded with a statue.

27  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 101. Senenmut is referring to the Westcar Papyrus, a Middle Kingdom collection of fantastic stories about the 4th Dynasty royal court. In it, one story is about the Old Kingdom where a trio of goddesses helps the Lady Reddjedet give birth to three triplet sons of Ra. Hapshetsut is the first pharaoh to actually make this claim as part of her propaganda, and whose miraculous conception by Amun became ‘fact’ after she became Pharaoh on the walls of her mortuary temple Djeser-Djeseru.

28   (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 11-12. Senenmut is holding ostraca, which are pieces of broken pottery that craftsmen use to plan or teach drawing or writing. They were cheap and widely used, and sketches were often made on these pottery for carvings before they were actually carved.

29   (Cooney, 2014) PP.85. Some of these were on blocks from Karnak temple, which show her and Thutmose II. These were probably made in memory of her husband, but it was also probably done to solidify her claim to the regency by emphasising her connection to Thutmose II.

30  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 101-102. The first recorded example is from Year 2 of Thutmose III’s reign, where Senma temple in Nubia showed her in the company of the gods, with a description of her action as an heir, builder and a ritual officiate—all masculine, kingly roles. Interestingly enough, Thutmose III was also in it, depicted as a grown man and not a child, meaning that Hapshetsut was already establishing her connection to his kingship. After that, she had Senenmut commission the Sehel relief, which is a monument text Senenmut had carved on the island of Sehel (Aswan), near the site where Hatshepsut’s obelisks were to be quarried. The inscription shows Hatshepsut as a queen, but where the text refers to Hatshepsut as ‘the one to whom Re has given the kingship in truth’, and stresses her role as ‘King’s Daughter, King’s Sister, God’s Wife, Great King’s Wife’, which is the first of Hatshepsut’s attempts to link herself with her father’s kingship.

31  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 102. This limestock block was found in 1930 by French archaeologist Henri Chevier, and it’s a block from the temple of Karnak. It had been dismantled, and it depicted Hatshepsut in a queen’s gown and with a Pharaoh’s atef crown. In it, Hatshepsut offers wine to the god Amun-Re, something only Pharaohs can do. She has also taken her throne name, Maatkare, and the titles ‘King of Upper and Lower Egypt’ and ‘Lady of the Two Lands’.

32  (Roehrig, 2006) PP. 12. Hatshepsut was not the first to depict herself in this manner. Sobekneferu of the 12th dynasty did too, a daughter of Amenemhat III who was married to her brother and whose reign was very brief. This was a queen regnant who ruled with no son, so Hatshepsut may have used her as a model.

33  (Laukens, 2015) The crook and the flail have been symbolic of power for a long time, and is associated with the god Osiris. It’s unknown what exactly these two represent, but it’s believed that the crook represents the role of Pharaoh as a shepherd to his people, while the flail seems to have evolved from a shepherd’s whip, or a tool used to collect plant resin to produce incense. Both items are considered sceptres, and there are other kinds of sceptres that are often depicted with the pharaoh, the gods, priests and important officials.

34  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 106-108. It is customary for a Pharaoh to take on five names when they ascend to the throne, which is meant to symbolise holy and worldly power, and act as a road map for that Pharaoh’s reign. For Hatshepsut’s coronation, she had already taken the throne name ‘Maatkare’, which means ‘Truth is the Soul of the Sun God Re’. She would also have changed her birth name to ‘Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut’, which means ‘Hatshepsut, United with Amen’. Pharaohs are never referred to by their birth name—either by their titles or as ‘One’. Her other names are ‘Wesretkau’, which means ‘Powerful of Ka Spirits’, ‘Wadjrrenput’ which means ‘She of the Two Ladies, Prosperous of Years’, and ‘Netjeretkhau’ which means ‘Divine of Appearances’. Many of these names openly alludes to the feminine, so Hatshepsut wasn’t trying to hide her gender.

35  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 129. It’s not uncommon for Pharaohs to co-rule. Most involve a senior Pharaoh and his son, but Hatshepsut’s coronation and reign is unusual in that it was backwards to what was considered normal.

36   (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 159-162. The last obelisks before these were done by Hatshepsut’s father Thutmose I. Hatshepsut’s first obelisks were probably commissioned and quarried to celebrate the reign of Thutmose III, and possibly even during the reign of Thutmose II. Since they took years to quarry, Hatshepsut took over them for herself for her coronation. Obelisks were religious objects meant to be a stone representation of the first beams of light to illuminate the world, and their tops were covered with gold foil so they shone. They were even regarded as living things—they had personal names, and offerings were made to them.

37 (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 99-101. Dating Hatshepsut’s reign has always been difficult. Since she came to kingship in an unconventional manner, it seemed that she dated her regnal years to the start of Thutmose III’s reign, a move that seemed to show she had no intention of supplanting him, but which makes her own dating system erratic. For example, Hatshepsut has been known to date her reign all the way back to the reign of Thutmose I, since she was trying to stress her connection to him by claiming her as his legitimate heir, a move she buttressed by de-emphasising the reign of Thutmose II.

38   (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 145-147. It is unknown where the land of Punt was, though from the fauna and flora depicted in the reliefs in Hatshepsut’s funerary temple at Djeser-Djeseru, it was probably somewhere along the Eritrean/Ethiopian coast. By Hatshepsut’s time, it was a land that had been visited successfully before by Pharaohs considered blessed, including Sahure (Dynasty 5), Pepy I (Dynasty 6), Mentuhotep II (Dynasty 11), Amenemhat I (Dynasty 12), and Senwosret I (Dynasty 12). The last journey was already 500 year ago from Hatshepsut’s time.

39  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 144. Punt was not the first trading expedition Hatshepsut undertook. Before Punt, the court had also visited Phoenicia to collect timber for her ships, and the exploitation of the copper and turquoise mines in Sinai, attested to by stela and inscriptions at the Wadi Maghara and Serabit el-Khadim.

40   (Cooney, 2014) PP. 136-140. Most of Hatshepsut’s high-ranking officials, like High Priest of Amun Hapuseneb, Ahmose Pennekhbet, and Vizier Urasermen were from distinguished backgrounds. They were often from old, distinguished Theban families where the positions were hereditary, and their fathers occupied similar positions before they took them over. Conversely, many of Hatshepsut’s new appointees weren’t from distinguished backgrounds, and many, including Chancellor Neshi who led the expedition to Punt, were just commoners. This was probably a deliberate move on Hatshepsut’s part; since her ‘new men’ had no political backgrounds, their influence depended on her alone, and so they had a vested interest in keeping her Pharaoh.

41  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 91-92. Senenmut resigned from his position as Nefrure’s tutor to take over his new role, and Nefrure was ‘God’s Wife of Amun’ by then, since Hatshepsut had to renounce that position when she became Pharaoh. Senenmut, being Hatshepsut’s clear favourite, was now one of the most powerful men in Egypt despite being from a commoner background. On top of that, he also impinged on some of the responsibilities of other high-ranking officials, which meant that he made some enemies amongst the influential families of Thebes. However, it’s possible that Hatshepsut meant for her men of common backgrounds to have overlapping responsibilities with high-ranking nobles. It’s a way to remain checks and balances within the system, and to ensure that neither group gains so much power that they can threaten her.

42 (Cooney, 2014) PP. 136. Under the old system, the temples of various cults were staffed by a few main priests and a variety of part-time personnel. In Hatshepsut’s time, she generously donated to temples, and in turn, they became fully professionalised, with multiple estates that had to be administered. The professionalisation of the priesthood had begun under Thutmose I, but was truly accomplished under Hatshepsut.

43   (Cooney, 2014) PP. 147. Hatshepsut was the first of Egyptian Pharaohs to build extensively in sandstone instead of limestone, and the strength of sandstone allowed her to build larger and taller buildings than before. The amount of building also allowed her plenty of space to sing her own praises and propagandise her reign and rule.

44  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 147. Hatshepsut built a temple for Pakhet, an obscure lion-headed goddess at Beni Hasan in Middle Egypt, which the Greeks later called Speos Artemidos after their own hunting goddess Artemis. She also built temples for Ptah at Memphis and Thebes, Thoth at Hermopolis, Khnum and Satet at Elephantine, Monthu at Armant, and a lot of other constructions in Nubia.

45 (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 164. The Red Chapel is Hatshepsut’s contribution to Karnak Temple, a spot where countless Pharaoh would leave their mark. Her shrine was made of red quartzite, and is meant to be a barque shrine, which is a resting station for a god’s barque when the god’s sacred statue leaves the temple. It was possible that Hatshepsut didn’t complete the shrine in her reign.

46  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 172-176. This mortuary temple contains the relief sculpture of Hatshepsut’s divine birth, and also the expedition to Punt. In her lifetime, Hatshepsut promoted the cult of Hathor, the daughter of Amun, at her mortuary temple, and while her funerary cult was abandoned soon after her death, the cult of Hathor would continue to be celebrated here. The temple continued to be used for worship right up until the Ptolemaic period and even after, until it was abandoned in the 8th Century B.C.E. due to danger on the upper level from rock slides.

47   (Laukens, 2015) Egyptians had many sports similar to ours, including boxing, wrestling, archery, swimming, and athletics. They had a game, similar to hockey, that was played with a coloured ball and bats with a curved end made of long palm tree branches. Other games involved a hoop and two sticks, where the two competitors tried to pull the hoop in their direction while making the hoop stay upright. In Hatshepsut’s time, royal sports would have been neglected as it was a male pastime, but Thutmose III would have performed a lot of sports since it is important to present the image of a strong, active Pharaoh.

48   (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 129. Mirrors did not exist in Ancient Egypt yet. People used discs of polished bronze or other metals to check their reflection. Beauty was considered holy, and at Hatshepsut’s dressing table, you would have found crushed frankincense used as kohl eyeliner, which both men and women used since it helps protect them from eye infection. Apart from kohl made from lead, eye paint made from malachite, and red stains for cheeks and lips made from ochre, they also dyed their hair and painted their nails with henna. Many Egyptian men and women also wore wigs made of human hair, which meant that Hatshepsut possibly shaved her head bald.

49   (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 88-90. It is unknown whether Nefrure ever married Thutmose III, though Nefrure certainly acted as ‘God’s Wife’ in her mother’s reign. Little is known about Nefrure after Hatshepsut’s death—someone of her lineage would most certainly have meant her to be Thutmose III’s Great Wife, but neither of Thutmose III’s two Great Wives were Nefrure, leading to the speculation that Nefrure may have died early. She may also have fallen out of favour.

50  (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 185-196. Senenmut’s relationship to Hatshepsut is the cause for much speculation in Egyptology. They were certainly close, and it is suggested that they might have been lovers. Not only did Hatshepsut allow Senenmut to tunnel his tomb close to hers in the Valley of the Kings, something that is quite bold, but he also managed to get dozens of images of himself engraved in her mortuary temple of Djeser-Djeseru. This sort of thing has no precedence in Pharaonic history, and that, coupled with the fact that Senenmut had no wife or child, makes people think that their relationship is not platonic. He faded in prominence after her 16th year of reign, meaning he might have died since he is probably 20 years her senior.

51   (Cooney, 2014) PP. 159-162. The Sed Festival was traditionally meant to celebrate 30 years of a Pharaoh’s reign, but Hatshepsut and Thutmose III celebrated it only after 15 years of rule. In Hatshepsut’s case, she took the reigns of Thutmose I, II and III and added them together, making it a celebration of a 30-year Thutmosic reign. It was a shrewd political move on her part, since everyone loves a spectacle, and she threw one of the greatest parties that an Egyptian could have seen in their lifetime. Not only does it affirm the power of the Thutmosic family tree, but it also showed off Thutmose III as a confident, young Pharaoh.

52   (Cooney, 2014) PP. 189. The date of Hatshepsut’s death is unknown, and there is also no evidence of abdication. There is no evidence of foul play either—if Thutmose III had wanted the throne to himself, he could have launched a military coup at any point in time. Her exact age at death is also unknown, though she could not possibly have been younger than 38 years old. The average life expectancy of an Egyptian was around 30 years old.

53  (Cooney, 2014)PP. 192-193. When Hatshepsut died, there appeared to have been a number of revolts. An Egyptian account of the events have been preserved, where one official claimed ‘From Yerdi to the ends of the earth, there is rebellion’. It is likely that many areas under Egyptian control rebelled, but it is clear that Thutmose III launched his campaign against the Syrians first, which he was quite successful at. Thutmose III would launch 17 campaigns in his 33 years of solo rule, and would expand the Egyptian empire past Thutmose I’s territory.

54  (Laukens, 2015) The ‘Field of Reeds’ is the Egyptian afterlife, a paradise that is a mirror image of life on earth. It is a land where Osiris, the lord of the Underworld, rules, and Osiris is commonly associated with dead Pharaohs, while the current living Pharaoh is associated with Osiris’ son Horus.

55    (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 212-213. Hatshepsut and Thutmose I’s bodies have never been properly identified. Hatshepsut’s old tomb (the one that was built for her when she was a Great Wife) has been found, but she was never buried in it since she became a Pharaoh after it. It seemed that while she was buried with her father, Thutmose III ended up moving the body of Thutmose I, probably because the grave had been found by graverobbers and ransacked. Later Pharaohs would also move the bodies of the 18th Dynasty Pharaohs around, so it’s unknown which body is Hatshepsut even though a number of female mummies had been found.

56 (Tyldesley, 1996) PP. 215. Thutmose III wasn’t just a great warrior-general, though he certainly felt most at home with his army. He was also a great builder and athlete. In his spare time, he composed literary works, and his interests ranged from botany, reading, history, religion and even interior design. He reigned for 53 years in total (including the 22 years of Hatshepsut’s reign), and celebrated another Sed festival in his time. He was succeeded by his son Amenhotep II.

57  (Cooney, 2014) PP. 219-222. The destruction of Hatshepsut’s legacy is one of those great mysteries of Egyptology that will never be truly understood. Sexism is a possible reason—removing all traces of a female king to create an unbroken male line is more in line with Egyptian ideas of kingship and the place of a woman. Other reasons include ealier simpler theories, like the possibility that Thutmose III was a petty man who hated his aunt and wanted revenge. However, this theory doesn’t hold, because while Thutmose III walled up Hatshepsut’s obelisks and remove her statues from Karnak, it’s normal for a Pharaoh to remove the statues and buildings of previous Pharaohs for their own building projects. Hatshepsut herself walled up some of Thutmose II’s buildings for her own projects. The bulk of the destruction had also occurred around 20 years after Hatshepsut’s death, and had left images of her as Great Wife and God’s Wife intact—if he hated her so much on a personal level, wouldn’t he have attacked all her images? Lastly, while the damage was extensive, it was also shoddy—we have a lot of images of her left after all, which shows that the destruction was not thorough, and the majority of the images attacked tended to be her most public images. One explanation was that Thutmose III was motivated politically because of a succession crisis in the 20th year of his reign, in regard to his son Amenhotep II, who was made heir after his original heir Amenemhat died unexpectedly. Amenhotep II was birthed by a non-royal mother, so people could have been questioning the lack of royal blood. Who were these people? No one knows, but one possibility is that they may have claimed descent from Hatshepsut’s side of the family. If that was the case, it could be Thutmose III’s reasoning behind removing all the reliefs that show Hatshepsut to be the senior king to Thutmose III, because that would obviously be fuel to these people’s claims. Once Amenhotep II was solidly on the throne, first as co-king and then alone, the destruction seemed to have ceased.

58 A quote from Egyptologist Henry James Breasted.



  • Cooney, Kara. “The Woman Who Would be King: Hapshetsut’s Rise to Power in Ancient Egypt”. USA: Crown Publishers, 2014.
  • Tyldesley, Joyce. “Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh”. England: Penguin Group, 1996.
  • Dodson, Aidan. “Monarchs of the Nile”. Egypt: American University in Cairo Press, 2015. Third Revised Edition.
  • Shaw, Ian. “Ancient Egypt: A Very Short Introduction”. United States, Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • Galford, Ellen. “Hatshepsut: The Girl Who Became a Great Pharaoh”. United States: The National Geographic Society, 2005.
  • Tyldesley, Joyce. “Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt: From Early Dynastic Times to the Death of Cleopatra”. USA: Thames & Hudson, 2006. PP. 88-108.
  • Robins, Gay. “Women in Ancient Egypt”. USA: British Museum Press, 1993. PP. 44-52. PP.149-156.
  • Hope, Colin A. “Gold of the Pharaohs”. Australia: Museum of Victoria, 1988.
  • Roehrig, Catherine H. et al. “Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh”. USA: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2006.

Journal Articles

  • Carney, Elizabeth D. “Women and Military Leadership in Pharaonic Egypt”. Greek, Roman and Byzantine studies 42 (2001): PP. 25-41.


Hatshepsut Full-Colour Zine – 30 Pages

I’ve decided to do a test print version of my “Hatshepsut” 30-page short story, using the kind of glossy paper that is normally reserved for flyers. The colours turned out great! I printed about 50 copies of these zines in A5 to share with people and get feedback. The writing may be a bit small since it’s been shrunk down from a larger size (6″x9″) to A5, but it’s still perfectly readable.

For those interested in where the visual references came from, I have a bunch of posts on the visual research I did to produce this.